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Normal Range of H pylori in stool

What is H Pylori Test? Normal Range, Diagnosis, Breath

H Pylori Test Normal Range Negative H Pylori Test. If your H Pylori test report falls ≤ 30 U/mL, then it depicts that there is no active H Pylori infection. Positive H Pylori Tes H Pylori antibody weakens the stomach's natural protective lining. The gastric acids damage the healthy stomach forming ulcers which lead to stomach cancer. The test not only diagnoses the H Pylori infection caused by the antibody, it also evaluates the effectiveness of the treatment. There are 4 ways to test H Pylori - Antibody test, Stool antigen test, Urea breath test and Stomach biopsy

Collection and Panels. H pylori antigen testing uses one fresh random stool sample. Samples must be kept cool at 2-8°C and are useable for up to 3 days, after which they must be frozen (at -20°C). Testing kits vary by manufacturer Positive rate for stool test results (%) H pylori stool antigen test: 1251/3454 (36.2) Faecal immunochemical test: 152/3432 (4.4) Referral rate (%) Positive H pylori stool antigen test: 817/1251 (65.3) Antibiotic treatment: 755/817 (92.4) Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy: 643/817 (78.7) Colonoscopy for positive faecal immunochemical test: 89/152 (58.6 Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen. What It Is. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are a common cause of peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus). In this test, a stool (feces) sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. Antigens are substances that trigger the immune system to fight infection This labeled carbon can then be measured as CO2 in the patient's expired breath to determine whether H.pylori is present. The sensitivity and specificity of the breath test ranges from 94% to 98%. Principle behind urea breath test; Fecal antigen test (FAT): H. pylori stool antigen is a reliable noninvasive tool to screen H. pylori infection Loose stools and diarrhea are NOT normal, are often accompanied by abdominal pain, wind and gas, and may alternative with constipation. These symptoms are usually indications that you're: Eating the wrong foods; Playing host to H. pylori or other bacteria such as Vibrio, C. diff and E. col

Helicobacter Pylori IgG Test - Test Results, Normal Range

Interpretation. Positive results indicate the presence of Helicobacter pylori antigen in the stool. Negative results indicate the absence of detectable antigen, but do not eliminate the possibility of infection due to Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrobials, proton pump inhibitors and bismuth preparations are known to suppress Figure 1. The normal reference range for C. dicile,Toxin A is 0-1,000 CFU/g. The patient's result is very high at 1.21 x 105, or 121,000 CFU/g

Average price range of the test is between Rs.1500 to Rs.4000 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity The most common stool test to detect H. pylori is called a stool antigen test that looks for foreign proteins (antigens) associated with H. pylori infection in your stool. Antibiotics, acid-suppressing drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) can interfere with the accuracy of these tests H. pylori (Heliobacter pylori, pronounced Hel-ee-koh-BAK-ter Pie-LORE-ee) is a type of bacteria that infects your stomach. It can damage the tissue in your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum). This can cause redness and soreness (inflammation). In some cases it can also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in your upper digestive tract. H. pylori is common These tests may look for clotting problems, anemia, and the presence of H. pylori infection. Associated Symptoms A person with blood in the stool may be unaware of bleeding and might have reported.

Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Test: Reference Range

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacteria that causes chronic inflammation of inner lining of the stomach and is the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease worldwide. Over 50% of American people are infected with H. pylori and, in developing countries, the percentage may reach as high as 90%; however, only one in six persons develops symptoms of peptic ulcer Helicobacter Pylori [H. Pylori] blood tests are used to determine if there is a bacterial infection within the stomach. This bacteria is known to increase the risks of the development of peptic ulcers and may also contribute to chronic gastritis or in rare instances stomach cancer. There are several different types of testing that can be performed This test can detect greater than or equal to > or = 64 ng/ml of H. pylori protein in stool. Results are qualitative and no quantitative interpretation can be made with respect to test values. Antimicrobials, proton pump inhibitors, and bismuth preparations are known to suppress H. pylori testing and may cause false negative results

Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach. Its helical shape (from which the genus name, helicobacter, derives) is thought to have evolved in order to penetrate the mucoid lining of the stomach and thereby establish infection H. Pylori stool test. H. pylori is often included in more comprehensive stool tests. Helicobacter pylori (or H. Pylori for short) is a type of bacteria. It's special because it has adapted to live in the harsh, acidic environment of the stomach—where most other bacteria can't survive

Your provider will compare the two samples. If the second sample has higher than normal carbon dioxide levels, it is a sign of an H. pylori infection. Stool tests.Your provider may order a stool antigen or a stool culture test. A stool antigen test looks for antigens to H. pylori in your stool. Antigens are substances that trigger an immune. Stool Test. A stool test can detect traces of H pylori in the feces. This test can be used to diagnose the infection and confirm that it has been cured after treatment. Biopsy . A tissue sample, called a biopsy, is taken from the stomach lining. This is the most accurate way to tell if you have an H pylori infection Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that has a worldwide distribution. It is associated with strong urease production and is excreted by the humans in their feces. Helicobacter pylori reside on the luminal side of the stomach mucosa and are one of the most common chronic bacterial infections. About half of the world population is believed to be afflicted with H.pylori infection

Accuracy of faecal occult blood test and Helicobacter

Another option in terms of non-invasive evaluation is the use of an H. pylori stool antigen test. The antigen is essentially a marker for the presence of active bacteria. This test offers a similar accuracy as compared to urea breath testing in detecting the bacteria The UBT involves ingestion of carbon labeled (13 C or radio-labeled 14 C) urea, and if H. pylori are present, the urea will be hydrolyzed yielding labeled carbon dioxide which can be detected in breath samples. The sensitivity and specificity range from 88% to 95% and 95% to 100%, respectively Testing for Helicobacter pylori is only recommended if treatment is planned. For patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), the Pranactin-Citric solution contains phenylalanine (75 mg/dose; for reference, 12 ounces of a typical diet cola contains approximately 80 mg) It may be as simple as submitting a stool (faecal) sample to look for the H. pylori antigen or a blood sample from your vein to detect an antibody to the bacteria. A more invasive test will require a procedure called an endoscopy or gastroscopy, which means putting a tube down the throat into the stomach to take a small piece of tissue (a.

Stool Test: H. Pylori Antige

Helicobacter Pylori Tests and Results • Microbe Onlin

  1. Dyspepsia in patient with PUD previously treated for H. pylori. Stool antigen or urea breath test; if positive, treat with regimen different from the one previously used; retest to confirm.
  2. Stool test - Just as the blood test looks for specific antigens associated with infection, in the same way, a stool sample can also be checked for the H.pylori antibodies. Endoscopy - This procedure involves endoscopy of the upper GI tract where a scope is inserted into the tract to look for abnormalities in the stomach lining and also.
  3. After running blood test they found h pylori in my system and was put in two antibiotic and an acid reducer. My GI said an endoscopy and colonoscopy were not necessary because of my age(I'm 23). My body was responding really well and stools were back to normal with no symptoms except the body aches
  4. e eradication. Serological follow up testing of individuals with positive H. pylori serology is not advised. Specimens are stable for 8 days 2-8°C or 6 months at -20°C. Results from specimens received after 8 days from collection date may be unreliable
  5. e thyroid issues related to chf? also, is h.pylori count of 2 means positive for it? on protonixthanks. Answered by Dr. Julie Abbott: ThryoTROPIN: is a synonym for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Go Way Beyond Digestive Issues. Symptoms of H Pylori Bacteria are often tricky to detect.The classic symptoms are gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, nausea etc.; and it is the CAUSE of most stomach ulcers. But rarely are the Symptoms of H pylori bacteria of the classic type.In fact, the majority of people who are ill from the H pylori bacteria. Helicobacter pylori Antigen, EIA, Stool - Colonization with H. pylori is associated with increased risk of patients developing gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Stool antigen testing provides a sensitive measure of infection including during and after treatment This test is intended to aid in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and to demonstrate loss of H.pylori stool antigen following treatment. Testing for loss of antigen is recommended at least four weeks following completion of therapy. The H. pylori antigen stool test may produce false negative results if a patient has been taking antibiotics.

How your poop shape indicates your health H Pylori Symptom

Faecal calprotectin is a substance that your body releases when there is inflammation in your intestines. Higher levels of faecal calprotectin - which is a protein biomarker - are associated with active i nflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Lower levels of calprotectin could indicate another issue. What It Is. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are a common cause of peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus).In this test, a stool (feces) sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. Antigens are substances that trigger the immune system to fight infection Q: I got a stool culture test done. The report shows I have E. coli in my stool. I have constipation and sometimes feel heaviness in my stomach and chest after meals. Is this due to the presence of E. coli in my stool?. A:E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the gut, present in large numbers in stools and usually does not cause any harm. However, there are some varieties of E. coli (like. Abstract. The mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection is poorly characterized. In northern California, 2,752 household members were tested for H. pylori infection in serum or stool at a baseline visit and 3 months later. Among 1,752 person considered uninfected at baseline, 30 new infections (7 definite, 7 probable, and 16 possible) occurred, for an annual incidence of 7% overall.

Helicobacter pylori Antigen, Feces - Laboratory Services

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are bacteria, a type of germ, which lives in the sticky mucus that lines the stomach. About 40% of people in the UK have Helicobacter pylori in their stomach so it is very common and in the approximately 8 to 9 out of 10 people who have it, does not cause any problems Testing for H. pylori. The H. pylori infection can be detected by submitting a stool sample (stool antigen test) or by using a device to measure breath samples after swallowing a urea pill (urea breath test). For both of these tests to be reliable, it is important to stop taking acid-reducing medications called proton pump inhibitors (like. H. pylori is a common bacterium, and approximately 50 percent of the world's population has been estimated to be infected (198). Humans are the principal reservoir. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, race, ethnicity, and SES. Rates appear to be higher in dev Causes. The exact way H. pylori infects someone is still unknown.H. pylori bacteria may be passed from person to person through direct contact with saliva, vomit or fecal matter.H. pylori may also be spread through contaminated food or water.. Risk factors. H. pylori infection is often acquired in childhood. Risk factors for H. pylori infection are related to living conditions in your.

  1. Helicobacter pylori is a type of bacteria that is known to be a major cause of peptic ulcers. H. pylori testing detects an infection of the digestive tract caused by the bacteria to help diagnose the cause of symptoms and/or ulcers.. H. pylori infections of the digestive tract are very common, with as many as half of the world's population infected.. However, most people with H. pylori never.
  2. If you have H. pylori, the bacteria will change the urea in your body into carbon dioxide, and lab tests will show that your breath has higher than normal levels of the gas. To look more closely.
  3. H. pylori Stool Antigen Test (M HP) is the recommended screening assay to diagnose H. pylori infection. UBT is only available through a GI Specialist or with approval from a Clinical Biochemist or the Microbiologist on call
  4. OipA (Outer Inflammatory Protein A) is an adhesin protein found in the outer cell membrane of H. pylori, and functions in adherence of H. pylori to gastrointestinal mucosa. OipA contributes to the activity of the CagA virulence factor, and to H. pylori's ability to induce inflammation via IL-8

Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Test - Test Results, Normal

  1. Stool Antigen Test: The most accurate test for H Pylori. A stool culture is used to detect the presence of pathogenic bacteria and help to diagnose an infection. A stool test is the best test for H pylori, as it is inexpensive, it's easy, and you just need to provide a stool sample. The Results: Finally, I'm H Pylori negative
  2. CPT Code: 87338 Order Code: 1375 Alternative Names: H. pylori Antigen, H. pylori Stool Antigen ABN Requirement: No Specimen: Stool Minimum Volume: 0.5 mL or 0.5 g or 20 mm diameter Container: Sterile, plastic leak-proof container (no preservatives) Collection:. Collect 0.5 mL or 0.5 g of semisolid stool or 20 mm diameter of solid stool and transfer to properly labeled sterile, plastic, leak.
  3. H. Pylori Antigen, stool. This microorganism, which can be found on the stomach mucosa of infected people, causes very frequent and mostly silent infections that can produce gastritis, gastric ulcers and other serious pathologies. This FDA-cleared, non-invasive test directly measures the antigen in stool (not antibodies) and is used for.
  4. e whether treatment for a H. pylori infection has been successful
  5. Helicobacter pylori tests are used to detect a Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) infection in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). Results from the urea breath test or a stool antigen test are usually available within a few hours. Results from biopsy samples obtained by endoscopy are usually available within 48 hours
  6. Approximately 10% of healthy persons younger than 30 years of age have H. pylori without disease or symptoms due to colonization, which can increase with age, with people older than age 60 years having rates at a percentage similar to their age. Testing should only be performed on symptomatic patients. It is the least sensitive of the H. pylori.
  7. H pylori was initially responsible for up to 95% of all gastroduodenal ulcers, but more recent studies have reported that the prevalence of H pylori in patients with PUD ranges from 36-73%, depending on ethnicity, geographic factors, and socioeconomic factors

Helicobacter pylori (H

  1. g food or water (or any liquid) that is conta
  2. Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a spiral gram negative bacterium found in association with human gastric epithelial cells (see 'Helicobacter pylori: current concepts and recommendations for treatment' Aust Prescr 1992;15:3-4).Infection of the gastric mucosa by H. pylori results in chronic antral gastritis and subsequently atrophic gastritis.. Furthermore, H. pylori is a major pathogenic.
  3. Test again to confirm eradication at least 4 weeks after completing treatment. H. pylori testing should be performed by a test of active infection, such as 13 C-urea breath test or stool antigen test (non-endoscopic tests). 4. The test-and-treat strategy is recommended for patients who are under the age of 60 years and have no alarm features

H pylori test is used for diagnosing an infection caused by the H pylori bacteria and also to check for the effectiveness of the H pylori treatment. The various methods adopted for H pylori test are blood test, breath test and stool test. Both breath and stool are said to be more effective in the detection of H pylori infection than a blood test Treat it: The positive H. pylori antibody test is not a reliable indicator of current infection. The gold standard for H. pylori treatment is the gastric biopsy Read More. 90,000 U.S. doctors in 147 specialties are here to answer your questions or offer you advice, prescriptions, and more

Helicobacter Pylori Johns Hopkins Medicin

Blood in Stool (Hematochezia): Causes, Diagnosis, Treatmen

Helicobacter Pylori and Peptic UlcerCandida Test | Lab Testing Kit for Diagnosing Candida

H Pylori Blood Test Results Explained. The H Pylori [Helicobacter pylori] blood test is used to help diagnose an infection that is caused by this bacteria. It will also be used to evaluate what treatment plan may be necessary to relieve a patient's symptoms. When there is an infection of the H Pylori bacteria, then there is an increased risk. Other than occult blood, stool tests detecting molecular markers are under continuous development; however, most stool tests are not widely available commercially.9 One exception is the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HPSA) because H pylori is well-known as a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer.10 As the absolute number of. Lactoferrin will remain stable in a fecal specimen for up to two weeks when stored at room temperature or at 2 to 8°C. Lactoferrrin testing is a quick, non-invasive, inexpensive way to see if a patient truly suffers from intestinal inflammation. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein present in activated neutrophils; when the intestines are inflamed. Description: H Pylori IgA IgG IgM Blood Test. This test measures 3 types of antibodies to Helicobacter Pylori (H Pylori), IgA, IgM, and IgG.H Pylori is a bacteria commonly found in the stomach.It weakens the stomach's natural protective lining making it more susceptible to damage from gastric acid.This can lead to the development of ulcers and in time, increase the risk of developing stomach.

In New Zealand, the rate of H. pylori infection is lower than many other developed countries, with an average rate of 18.6%. However, this rate varies depending on ethnic group: About 7 in every 100 Pakeha people are infected, among the lowest rates for H. pylori in the world The mean values of 14C-urea breath test were significantly lower in H. pylori negative patients as compared to H. pylori positive patients. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the data, the cutoff values obtained were 0.01, 0.007 and 0.009 at 5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes respectively

Classification of H. Pylori. Domain: Eubacteria - This includes a range of bacteria that do not have a well defined nuclei membrane. As such, Eubacteria is composed of prokaryotic organisms. Kingdom: Bacteria - Single-celled prokaryotes Phylum: Proteobacteria - Includes all gram-negative bacteria Class: Epsilonproteobacteria - Made up of gram negative organisms that may be found living in deep. (i) The prevalence of H. pylori ranges from 30 to 40 percent in the United States. (ii) H. pylori is associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. (iii) Reports of Russell body gastritis in H. pylori patients show light chain deposits. (2) The new findings are as follows The urea breath test or the stool antigen test are the two noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection, and both are equally appropriate for adult patients younger than 60 years and without alarm symptoms. See Laboratory Testing.. Both tests have good positive and negative predictive value for diagnosing H.pylori infection Title: Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Doc.#52608 Ver 1.0 Page 1 of 1 Patient Instructions . Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test . Your doctor has requested that you have a H. pylori Stool Antigen Test performed. In order to produce a meaningful laboratory test result, you must follow these instructions

Recurrent abdominal pain in pediatrics

H. pylori is a bacteria that can cause peptic ulcer disease and gastritis. It mostly occurs in children. Only 20% of those infected have symptoms. Symptoms include dull or burning stomach pain, unplanned weight loss and bloody vomit. H-pylori-caused ulcers are commonly treated with combinations of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors H. pylori infection affects 50% of the world's population.2 In the United States, the seroprevalence of H. pylori is higher in blacks (53%) and Mexicans (62%) than in whites (26%), and it is more. Antimicrobials, proton pump inhibitors and bismuth preparations suppress H. pylori growth. Recent ingestion prior to H. pylori testing may give a false negative result. If a negative result is obtained after a patient has ingested these compounds, repeat testing on a new specimen obtained two weeks after discontinuing treatment is recommended.

In this stool test snippet from one of my client's recent stool tests, you can see elevated beta glucuronidase. In truth, I've seen much higher levels than this (3,000+). On this example, you can also see high anti-gliadin IgA, which indicates gluten sensitivity, and high steatocrit, which means my client is not digesting dietary fat Detection of H. pylori antigen in stool is an attractive non-invasive method since stool samples can be easily obtained and can be conveniently transported by mail. Neither keeping the samples at room temperature for up to 5 days nor freezing for months or even years seems to influence the accuracy of the stool tests [ 63 , 101 , 116 , 126 ]

pylori load in the stool was significantly higher (Wilcoxon Exact Test, p = 0.03) in the gastric cancer cases (median = 46 H.pylori 16S copies per μg stool DNA, range 0-560) compared to the non-cancer subjects (median = 7.5 H.pylori 16S copies per μg stool DNA, range 0-1080) Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the cause of most stomach and duodenal ulcers.H. pylori also causes some cases of non-ulcer dyspepsia. Infection with H. pylori can be confirmed by a test done on a sample of stools (faeces), by a breath test, by a blood test, or from a biopsy sample taken during a gastroscopy (endoscopy). A one-week course of two antibiotic medicines plus an. Diagnosed w/ H. Pylori back in July of 2009----blood work for H. Pylori antibody @ Kaiser and it was positve measured around 250 (Kaiser's normal range is 0-99). I completed the Triple Therapy and my symptoms went away. I also had an endoscopy in December of 2009 and was tested for H. Pylori again and it came back negative.. Usually a routine stool test (O&P, or C&S) does not include H.pylori. H.pylori does not live in the 'stool' containing guts, is not an intestine pathogen culprit, hence cannot be cultured from stool, BUT its dead antigen (body parts if you wish) is still excreted, are not gone by the time getting out with stool, even being dead

An H. pylori stomach infection is usually lifelong, unless it's treated with eradication therapy. Treating gastritis Treatment aims to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach to relieve symptoms, allowing the stomach lining to heal and to tackle any underlying cause H.pylori eradication is more effective than long-term acid lowering therapy in reducing both the relapse rate and the complication rate of peptic ulcer disease. H.pylori eradication therapy is also of value in the treatment of a minority of patients (approximately 5%) with functional dyspepsia. The faecal antigen test we are using picks up 95%. H. pylori bacteria change urea into carbon dioxide. If you have the bacteria, the breath test will show an increase in carbon dioxide. Blood test: A blood test checks for antibodies titers that fight H. pylori bacteria. Stool test: This test checks for H. pylori bacteria in your stool (poop) A stool test is also known as stool culture, faecal sample test or stool sample test.The test helps in diagnosing medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastric or colon cancer, anal fissures, haemorrhoids, as well as to detect the presence of blood in your stool sample.. Stool tests helps to determine whether a bacteria or any other microorganism has infected the intestines.

Normal hemoglobin levels of women: 12.3 - 15.3 g/dL (average is 13.8 g/dL) Other lab tests results may have a slightly different normal range for hemoglobin levels. For example, Dr. Abimola Farinde on Medscape says that normal hemoglobin levels for men could be as low as 13.0 g/dL. 4. Normal Hgb levels also depend on the age of a person Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shaped bacterium that lives in or on the lining of the stomach. It causes more than 90 percent of ulcers, which are sores in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) Helicobacter Pylori Urea Breath Does this test have other names? Urea breath test, UBT. What is this test? This is a test that checks your breath for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a common infection. H. pylori bacteria are spread through contact with feces from an infected person. Many people get this infection during childhood Because the normal value of H. pylori antibody titer is different with each The reported rate of inappropriate antibiotic use in hospitals ranges from 26% to 57% [57 T. Okimoto et al., Infuence of proton pump inhibitor treatment on Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 44.

because of the large percentage of H. pylori- colonized individuals, especially in older age groups (estimated to be 40-60% of asymptomatic Caucasians older than 60 years). UBT / Helicobacter pylori Breath Test or HPSA / Helicobacter pylori Antigen, Feces, should be used to identify cases of active or ongoing H. pylori infection. CPT CODE: 8667 In This Episode. Intro 00:00:45 PCR-based Stool Testing vs. Traditional Methods 00:06:09 False Positives in PCR Testing 00:18:52 Overtreating Based on Test Results 00:23:35 Testing and H. Pylori 00:27:50 Ranges Used for Detection 00:33:26 Lab-Based Research 00:40:46 Differences in PCR Technology 00:45:02 Proper Utilization of Tests 00:49:2 Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are a common cause of digestive illnesses, including gastritis (the irritation and inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus), and even stomach cancer later in life.. These bacteria are found worldwide, but especially in developing countries, where up to 10% of children and 80%. a stool antigen test - a small stool sample is tested for the bacteria a blood test - a sample of your blood is tested for antibodies to the H. pylori bacteria (antibodies are proteins produced naturally in your blood and help to fight infection); this has now largely been replaced by the stool antigen tes

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